Nephrite is a set of diseases that cause inflammation of the renal tubules in kidney, which are the structures of the kidneys, responsible for eliminate toxins and other components of the body, such as water and mineral salts. In these cases, the kidney has less ability to filter the blood.
The major types of nephritis that are related to the part of the kidney affected by, or with the causes that the causes, are:
- Glomerulonephritisin which inflammation affects mainly the first part of the filtering device, the glomerular, which can be acute or chronic;
- Interstitial nephritis or nephritis tubulointersticial, in which inflammation occurs in the tubules of the kidneys and in the spaces between the tubules and the glomerular;
- Lupus nephritis, in which the affected part is also the glomerular, and is caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, which is a disease of the immune system.
The nephritis can be acute, when it appears quickly because of a serious infection, such as for example infection of the throat by Streptococcus, hepatitis, or HIV, or chronic when it develops slowly because of the more serious injuries of the kidneys.
The main symptoms
The symptoms of nephritis may be:
- Decrease in amount of urine;
- Urine reddish;
- Excess sweat, especially on the face, hands and feet;
- Swelling of the eyes or of the legs;
- Increase in blood pressure;
- The presence of blood in the urine.
With the appearance of these symptoms, you should immediately go to a nephrologist to make diagnostic tests such as urine test, ultrasound or ct scans to identify the problem and start the proper treatment.
In addition to these symptoms, in nephritis chronic can arise loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, insomnia, itching and cramps.
There are several causes that can lead to the appearance of a nephritis, such as:
- Excessive use of medicinessuch as some painkillers, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory non-steroids, diuretics, anti convulsants, calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine and tacrolimo;
- Infections by bacteria, viruses and others;
- Diseasesautoimmune, such as systemic Lupus erythematosus, Sjögren’s Syndrome, systemic Disease associated to IgG4;
- Prolonged exposure to toxinssuch as lithium, lead, cadmium or aristolochic acid;
In addition, people with various types of nefropatias, cancer, diabetes, glomerulopatias, HIV, sickle cell disease have a higher risk of suffering from nephritis.
How is it treated
The treatment depends on the type of nephritis and, therefore, in the case of a nephritis acute treatment can be done with absolute bed rest, blood pressure control and reduction of salt consumption. If the nephritis acute was caused by an infection, your nephrologist may prescribe an antibiotic.
already in the cases of nephritis, chronic, in addition to the control of blood pressure, the treatment is usually done with prescription anti-inflammatory medications such as cortisone, immunosuppressants, and diuretics, and a diet with restriction of salt, protein and potassium.
The doctor nephrologist should be consulted regularly because the nephritis chronic often causes chronic renal failure. See what are the signs that may indicate renal failure.
How to prevent nephritis
To avoid the appearance of nephritis, you should avoid smoking, reduce stress and do not take medicines without medical advice because many of them can cause damage to the kidney.
People who have diseases, especially of the immune system, should make the appropriate treatment and consult regularly with the doctor, so as to monitor the blood pressure, and make a regular rim. The doctor may also recommend changes in diet such as the intake of less amount of protein, salt and potassium.