Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder severe in which a person has periods of alternation of moods that last for days, months or years, since the depression, in which there is profound sadness, the mania, in which there is extreme euphoria or hypomania, which is a softer version of mania.
Also called bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, and manic-depressive illness, this disease affects equally men and women and can start in the teenage years or from the age of 30 years.
You must remember that not every mood-changing means that there is a bipolar disorder. For the disease is identified, it is necessary to pass an evaluation from the psychiatrist, which will detect that the person experiencing the phases and that this will interfere in your day-to-day.
Phases of bipolar disorder, and types
The stages that a person with bipolar disorder experiences usually last from weeks to months, but there can also be periods of remission, there is a normal mood and no changes. The episodes are:
1. Bipolar depression
This is the period in which the person has depressive symptoms, and signs such as unhappiness, irritability, or pessimism, with duration of at least 2 weeks. Wont be the episode most of the time, and may persist for years, and many people end up being initially treated for depression rather than bipolar disorder.
Know how to identify the symptoms that indicate depression.
2. Mania – Bipolar Disorder type 1
It is a mood overly happy, extreme euphoria, a feeling of energy, excitement, mania of greatness, and little need for sleep. There may also be irritability, aggressiveness or delusional ideas and paranoid, so, you can also be confused with schizophrenia.
To characterize an episode of mania, at least 3 or 4 of the symptoms must last for at least 1 week. These symptoms cause many problems to the person, interfering in your relationships and in your everyday life, being the main cause of hospitalization for people with this disease. Check out more details about the mania bipolar.
When the person alternates between depression and mania, the disease is classified as Bipolar Disorder type 1.
3. Hypomania – Bipolar Disorder type 2
Symptoms are similar to mania, but are lighter and do not interfere much in the day-to-day life of the person, players are no more talkativeness, sociability, impulsivity, reduced need for sleep, the greater capacity of initiative, energy for activities and impatience.
To be detected hypomania, these symptoms must last for at least 4 days. Generally, the hypomania passes quickly, and lasts less than a week, so, it is not always identified.
When the person alternates between depression and hypomania, without having a picture of mania, the disease is classified as Bipolar Disorder type 2.
How is it treated
Bipolar disorder has no cure but can be controlled with medications prescribed by the doctor and psychiatrist with sessions of psychotherapy. You may also choose to have sessions of phototherapy, a therapy that uses different colored lights to change the mood of the individual.
The drug treatment includes mood stabilizers, which will control the manic episodes, such as lithium or acid valprótico, for example, and antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine or aripiprazole, which are used if the symptoms of depression and mania to persist.
In addition, they can also be used antidepressants to help control depression, such as fluoxetine, for example, that must be associated with an antipsychotic to prevent episodes of mania, and associate eventually anti-anxiety medications, help reduce anxiety and improve sleep, such as medications benzodiazepines.