Mania is one of the phases of the bipolar disorder, disorder also known as manic-depressive illness. It is characterized by a state of intense euphoria, no increased energy, agitation, restlessness, mania of grandeur, less need for sleep, and may even cause aggression, delusions and hallucinations.
Already hypomania is a more mild mania, with symptoms less severe and interfere less in day-to-day person, and there may be chatter, greater disposition, impatience, more sociability, initiative, and energy to perform daily activities.
It is important to remember that not every mood change indicates mania or bipolar disorder, because it is common that all people have minor variations in mood throughout the day or week. To detect bipolar mania, it is necessary for the psychiatrist to perform an evaluation of the signs and symptoms and identify whether these are characteristic of the disease.
The main symptoms
Mania and hypomania bipolar cause feelings of euphoria that are very disproportionate in relation to any positive event. The main symptoms include:
1. Bipolar Mania
The manic episode symptoms that include:
- Excessive elation;
- Self-esteem inflated or mania of greatness;
- To talk excessively;
- Racing thoughts with flight of ideas;
- A lot of distraction;
- Greater agitation or energy to perform activities;
- Loss of control over their attitudes;
- Involvement in activities that are risky and which normally require stealth, such as financial investments foolish, shopping, tumbling, or sexual desire greatly increased, for example;
- There may be irritability or aggressiveness;
- There may be delusions or hallucinations.
For the event to be characterized as mania, there must be at least 3 symptoms, which should last at least 7 days and persists for most of the day, or in cases that are so severe to the point of needing hospitalization.
These symptoms are so intense that often disrupt social relations and professional person with the disease, being considered a medical emergency and social, that should be treated as soon as possible.
The signs and symptoms of an episode of hypomania are similar to mania, however, are lighter. The main include:
- Euphoria or elevated mood;
- Greater creativity;
- Reduced need for sleep, already being rested after sleeping about 3 hours, for example;
- Talk more than normal or chattering;
- Thought accelerated;
- Easy distraction;
- Agitation or increased energy to perform activities;
- Easily perform activities that require greater caution, such as shopping unrestrained financial investments risky, and increased sexual appetite.
The symptoms of hypomania does not usually cause harm to relationships and social professionals, and also do not cause symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations, in addition to costumarem last for a short time, about 1 week.
In addition, they are not serious enough to require hospitalization, and in some cases may even go unnoticed. In these cases, many patients end up being treated as only having depression, as the alternation of mood can not be detected.
How to confirm
The episode of mania or hypomania is identified by the psychiatrist, who will evaluate the symptoms reported by the patient or by people close to you.
It is also important that the doctor make the assessments and exams that may fend off other diseases or situations that cause similar symptoms, such as dysregulation of the thyroid, side effects of medications, such as corticosteroids, use of illegal drugs or other psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia or personality disorders, for example.
How to treat
The treatment of bipolar disorder is guided by the psychiatrist, made with drugs that act by stabilizing the mood such as Lithium or Valproate, for example. Can be given as antipsychotics, such as Haloperidol, Quetiapine or Olanzapine, to calm down the behavior, and lessen psychotic symptoms.
Psychotherapy is very useful to help the patient and the family cope with the changes of the mood. Anxiolytics can also be given in cases of great agitation, and, in addition, in cases of severe or resistant to treatment may be given electroconvulsive therapy.