Mental disorders are dysfunctions in the functioning of the mind, which can affect anyone and at any age and are generally caused by complex changes of the central nervous system.
There are several types of mental disorders, which are classified into types, and some of the most common include those related to anxiety, depression, eating, personality, or movements, for example. In the following, we will talk about the main mental disorders in the population, and at the end there is a complete list of the existing types.
Anxiety disorders are very common, present in approximately 1 of every 4 people who go to the doctor. They are characterized by a feeling of discomfort, tension, fear or foreboding, which are very unpleasant and tend to be caused by the anticipation of a danger or something unknown.
The most common forms of anxiety are generalized anxiety, panic attacks and phobias, and are very harmful both to affect the social life and emotional of the person, as to cause uncomfortable symptoms, such as palpitation, cold sweat, tremors, shortness of breath, feeling of suffocation, tingling or chills, for example, and by a greater risk of developing depression or addiction to alcohol and drugs.
- What to do: it is recommended to perform psychotherapy, in addition to follow-up with the psychiatrist that, in some cases, may indicate the use of drugs that relieve the symptoms, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications. It is also oriented to the achievement of the physical activity and, in addition, it can be useful to the investment in natural methods or leisure activities such as meditation, dance or yoga, for example. Learn more about the ways of treating anxiety.
About 15% of people experience depression at some point in life. Depression is defined as a state of depressed mood that persists for more than 2 weeks, with sadness and loss of interest or pleasure in activities, and may be accompanied by signs and symptoms such as irritability, insomnia or excessive sleep, apathy, weight loss or weight gain, lack of energy, or difficulty to concentrate, for example. Understand how to know if it is sadness or depression.
- What to do: to treat depression, is indicated in the follow-up with the psychiatrist, which will indicate the treatment according to the severity and the symptoms presented. The main way to treat depression is the combination of psychotherapy and use of antidepressant drugs, which include Sertraline, Amitriptyline, or Venlafaxine, for example.
Schizophrenia is the main psychotic disorder, characterized as a syndrome that causes disturbances in language, thought, perception, social activity, affection and will. It is more common in young people, in late adolescence, although it can arise along other ages, and some of the most common signs and symptoms are hallucinations, behavior changes, delusions, disorganized thinking, changes of movement or affection superficial, for example.
Although we do not know exactly the cause of schizophrenia, it is known that is related to the genetic alterations that cause defects in neurotransmitter systems of the brain, and that can be hereditary. Learn what are the main types of schizophrenia and how to confirm.
- What to do: you need the psychiatric evaluations, which will indicate the use of antipsychotic medications, such as Risperidone, Quetiapine, Clozapine and Olanzapine, for example. In addition, it is essential that guidance to the family and follow up with other professionals in the area of health, such as psychology, occupational therapy and nutrition, for example, for the treatment to be completely effective.
4. Eating disorders
Anorexia nervosa is characterized by weight loss intentionally caused by the refusal of the power, distortion of self-image and fear of weight gain. Already the Bulimia consists of eating large amounts of food and then try to eliminate the calories of harmful forms, such as by the induction of vomiting, use of laxatives, physical exercise, intense or prolonged periods.
The eating disorders are more common in young people, and have been increasingly frequent and by the culture of aesthetic value. Though Anorexia and Bulimia are the eating disorders more known, other problems related to food include the Ortorexia, which is the excessive concern for eating healthy food, Overtraining, what is the obsession with the muscular body, or binge eating, for example. Learn what are the main eating disorders.
- What to do: there is no simple treatment to cure eating disorders and need psychiatric treatment, psychological and nutritional, and the medications tend to be indicated only in cases of associated diseases, such as anxiety or depression. Support groups and counseling can be good ways to supplement the treatment and get good results.
5. Stress post traumatic stress disorder
The stress post traumatic stress disorder is the anxiety that comes after being exposed to any traumatic situation, such as an assault, a threat of death or loss of a loved one, for example. Usually, the affected person relives persistently occurred with memories or dreams, and exhibits intense anxiety and psychological suffering. Check out how to know if it is stress post traumatic stress disorder.
- What to do: the treatment is done with psychotherapy, and the psychiatrist may also indicate medicines, such as antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications to relieve the symptoms.
Somatization is a disorder in which a person has multiple physical complaints relating to various organs of the body, but that are not explained by any change in the clinic. Usually, these are people who constantly go to the doctor with many complaints, and in the medical evaluation, physical examination, and conducting tests, nothing is detected.
In most cases, people with a disorder of somatization have anxiety and mood changes, in addition to being able to display impulsiveness. When in addition to feeling a person comes to simulate, or to provoke intentionally the symptoms, the disease shall be called a disorder factício.
- What to do: follow-up is necessary psychiatric and psychological, so that the person can alleviate the symptoms. Medicines such as antidepressants or anxiolytics may be required in some cases. Learn more about somatization and psychosomatic diseases.
6. Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric illness that causes swings unpredictable mood swings, ranging from depression, which consists of sorrow, and dejection, and mania, impulsivity, and feature excessively extroverted.
- What to do: treatment is usually done with medications mood stabilizers such as lithium carbonate, which must be recommended by the psychiatrist. Understand how to identify and treat this disease.
7. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Also known as OCD, this disorder causes obsessive thoughts and compulsive that affect the daily activity of the person as an exaggeration in cleanliness, obsession with hand washing, need for symmetry or impulsiveness accumulate objects, for example.
- What to do: treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder is guided by the psychiatrist, with the intake of medicines antidepressants, such as Clomipramine, Paroxetine, Fluoxetine or Sertraline, being also recommended you do cognitive-behavioral therapy. Learn more details abouthow to identify and treat this disease.
List of mental disorders
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the list of major includes:
- Anxiety disorder, such as panic attacks, generalised anxiety, stress or phobia;
- Bipolar disorder, in which alternating periods of depression and periods of mania;
- Depressive disorders, in which there are several types of depression;
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder;
- Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia or disorder delusional;
- Eating disorders, such as anorexia or bulimia;
- Stress disorder post-traumatic stress disorder;
- Personality disorders, such as of the types paranoide, anti social, boderline, histrionic, or narcissistic, for example;
- Disorders related to the use of substancessuch as illicit drugs, alcohol, drugs or cigarettes, for example;
- Disorders Neurocognitive, such as delirium, Alzheimer’s or other dementias;
- Disorder of Neurodevelopment, such as intellectual disabilities, disorders of communication, autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, or changes in movements;
- Disorders of Somatization, in which the patient has physical complaints without apparent reason;
- Dissociative disorders, such as Disorder, Depersonalization/Derealization, or amnesia, dissociative;
- Dysphoria Gender-based, related to sexual development;
- Disorders Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct, such as Kleptomania, Piromania or explosive disorder;
- Sexual dysfunctions, like premature ejaculation or delayed;
- Disorder of Sleep-wakefulness, such as insomnia, hipersonolência or narcolepsy;
- Disorder of Elimination, such as urinary or fecal incontinence;
- Disorders Parafílicos, related to sexual desire;
- Disorders of movement- related effects of medications.
There are also several other types of disorders, such as those related to social problems, educational, professional, or economic, for example.