Conflicts within South Sudan 1

Conflicts within South Sudan Part 1

Barely 2.5 years after the creation of the state, South Sudan was drawn into a devastating civil war in December 2013. A power struggle between the country’s two main leaders triggered the conflict. It was not until 2015 that a peace agreement was signed following international pressure. By then, tens of thousands, perhaps hundreds of thousands, of people […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 6

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 6

Offensive against FDLR Thereafter, the military and the FIB instead focused on fighting the FDLR (and ADF-Nalu). Assessors pointed out that it would be difficult to defeat the FDLR with military means alone. It had long been emphasized that political and economic measures would also be required to force the Hutu militia to lay down its arms […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 5

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 5

 A divided country In the parliamentary elections, parties loyal to Kabila had gained a majority, but in the presidential election a second round of elections was required between Kabila and the former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba. Bemba played on xenophobic sentiments against Kabila and accused him of not being a “true Congolese”. Kabila clearly won in […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 4

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 4

Short-term peace agreement In November 1998, a Ugandan-backed rebel movement, the Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC), opened a new front against Kabila in the north. The following year, the RCD was split into two factions, one supported by Rwanda and one by Uganda. The rebel movements in the east built up their forces with incomes from gold, diamonds, coltan and tin. Later, there […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 3

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 3

Africa’s First World War The genocide in Rwanda in 1994 contributed to the overthrow of dictator Mobutu after many years in power. But the new rulers were not interested in a real democratization of Congo-Kinshasa and in 1998 war broke out. More and more other countries were drawn into the conflict, sometimes referred to as “Africa’s First […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 2

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 2

Great UN effort After a ceasefire was concluded in August 1999, the UN sent a peacekeeping force, Monuc , to the country. It grew in a few years to 17,000 men, but still had difficulty creating calm. In 2010, it was transformed into Monusco, whose task is to try to stabilize the situation in the east. Both Monuc and Monusco […]

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict 1

The Congo-Kinshasa Conflict Part 1

The great war that broke out in Congo-Kinshasa in 1998 had devastating consequences. Hundreds of thousands of people lost their lives and the civilian population was subjected to horrific abuses. The war formally ended in 2003, but the struggle over who should control the country’s vast natural resources has continued and led to new violence, especially in […]

Swaziland Schools

Swaziland Children and School

Do children go to school in Swaziland? Normally, children in Swaziland should go to elementary school for seven years. They can then attend a Junior Secondary School and then a Senior Secondary School for another two years. Those who have successfully completed the latter have something like our Abitur under their belt and could go […]