Fear is an emotion basic, which allows people and animals to avoid danger. However, when the fear is exaggerated, persistent and irrational, it is considered a phobia, causing the person to flee the situation that caused it, causing unpleasant feelings such as anxiety, muscle tension, tremor, flushing, pallor, sweating, tachycardia, and panic attacks.
There are several types of phobias that can be faced and treated with sessions of psychotherapy or with the help of specific medicines.
The tripofobia, also known as fear of holes, it happens when you feel discomfort, itching, tremors, numbness, and repulsion on contact with objects or images that have holes or irregular patterns, such as honeycombs, groups of holes in wood, leather, plants, or sponges, for example. In more severe cases, this contact can cause dizziness, increased heartbeat, and even lead to a crisis of panic.
According to a recent research, this happens because people with tripofobia make an association unconscious mental between these patterns and a possible situation of danger and the fear arises in most of the times, in the patterns created by nature. The repulsion felt is due to the similarity of the appearance of the holes with the worms that cause disease in the skin, or the skin of poisonous animals.
Agoraphobia is characterised by fear to stay in open spaces or closed, use public transport, stay in a queue or stay in the middle of a crowd, or even leave the house alone. In these situations, or to think of them, people with agoraphobia experience anxiety, panic, or have other symptoms incapacitating or embarrassing.
The person who has the fear of these situations, you avoid them or experience them with much fear and anxiety, in need of the presence of a company for support without fear. In these cases, the person has a constant worry of experiencing panic attacks, to lose control in public or something to happen to leave in danger. Learn more about the agoraphobia.
This phobia should not be confused with social phobia, where the fear comes from the inability of the person to interact with others.
3. Social phobia
Social phobia, or social anxiety disorder,is characterized by an exaggerated fear of interacting with other people, and that it may affect very much the social life and lead to depressive states. The person who has social phobia feels very anxious in situations such as eating in public places, go into places full, go to a party or a job interview, for example.
Usually, these people feel inferior, have low self-esteem, are afraid of being hurt or embarrassed by the other, and probably in the past have gone through traumatic experience such as bullying, assaults, or were very pressured by parents or teachers.
The most frequent symptoms of social phobia are anxiety, increased heart rate, difficulty breathing, sweating, face red, hands shaky, dry mouth, difficulty speaking, stuttering and insecurity. In addition, the person also becomes very concerned with his performance or with the that you can think of it. Social phobia is curable if the treatment is properly done.
Claustrophobia is a type of psychological disorder in which the person has fear of being in closed places, such as elevators, buses are too full or the rooms small, for example.
The causes of this phobia may be inherited or may be associated with a traumatic experience in childhood in which the child was closed in a room or in an elevator, for example.
People with claustrophobia believe that the space where you are going to getting smaller, thus developing symptoms of anxiety such as sweating excessive, dry mouth and increased heart rate.
The arachnophobia, also known by the fear of spider, is one of the phobias that are more common, and it happens when the person has an exaggerated fear of being close to arachnids, leading it to lose control, and may also experience dizziness, increased heart rate, chest pain, sensation of shortness of breath, tremors, excessive sweating, thoughts of death and sickness.
No one knows for sure what causes arachnophobia, but it is believed that it may be an evolutionary response, since spiders the most poisonous cause infections and diseases. Thus, the fear of spiders is a kind of defense mechanism unconscious of the body, in order to not be stung.
Thus, the causes of arachnophobia may be inherited, or be associated with the fear of being bitten and die, or to see other people with the same behavior, or even due to traumatic experiences suffered with spiders in the past.
The coulrofobia is characterized by an irrational fear of clowns, in which the person feels traumatized by your vision, or just imagining his image.
It is believed that the fear of clowns can begin in childhood, because children are very reactive to strange people, or due to an episode unpleasant that may have happened with the clowns. In addition, the simple fact of the unknown, of not knowing who is behind the mask causes fear and insecurity. Another cause of this phobia may be the way that the evil clowns are represented on television or in the cinema, for example.
Although it is seen by many as a joke harmless, the clowns cause in people with coulrofobia symptoms such as excessive sweating, nausea, fast heartbeat, fast breathing, crying, shouting and irritation.
The acrophobia, or a fear of heights is a fear exaggerated and irrational heights, such as bridges or balconies of high-rise buildings for example, especially when there is no protection.
This phobia can be triggered by a trauma experienced in the past, by overreactions by parents or grandparents where the child was in places with a certain height, or simply by instinct of survival.
In addition to the symptoms common to other kinds of phobia such as excessive sweating, tremors, shortness of breath and increased heart rate, the most common of this type of phobia are unable to trust in your own balance, constant attempts to cling to something, cries, and screams.